Part Three Building the Boat
Overall conceptual sequence of events1) Build the plug (the boat hull is built upside-down)
2) Cut and layout the honeycomb-core side panels
3) Pre-fiberglass the side panels. Pre-fiberglassing only inside surface of the side panels and the bottom panel.
4) Mount the sides on the plug
5) Fasten the two transom ends to the plug and glue the edges together (side panels to transoms)
6) Make, pre-fiberglass, and install the bottom panel (pre-fiberglass the inside surface only)
7) Glue the bottom panel to sides, while on the plug. Fiberglass the outside of the boat
8) Pop the hull off the form. Roll it over to right side up.
9) Straighten up the hull. Use a wire from long transome corner to corner.
10) Fillet and glass the inside of the hull
12) Make and install the dececk
13) Make locker lid openings in the deck
14) paint the boat
Building the PlugThe plug is a temporary form on which the boat is built. The honeycomb-core side and bottom pieces of the boat are fastened directly onto the plug. The plug defines the shape of the boat and remains in place until a later stage in the construction process. The plug consists of six trapezoids made from 1/2" or 3/4" wafer board, chip board or playwood. Two of these wafer board trapezoids form the transom ends of the plug. The other three trapezoid shapes can be thought of as temporary boat ribs. The plug is made from scraps of wood but it takes the shape of the finished boat. The plug is a bit like a curved concrete form. Each Trapezoid is assigned a number: trapezoid number one being closest to the bow, and station number three being closest to the stern. Stations number one and three have legs screwed on to hold the assembly up off the floor of the shop. Keep in mind that the boat hull is built upside down. The side panels of the boat bend and take the shape of the boat as they are fastened to the plug stations. The dimensions for the three rib-like plug stations are given in the plans. Draw the stations full size on a sheet of plywood or on the floor of your shop, and assemble the stations over their corresponding drawings to keep the edges parallel and square.
Fastening the side panels with screws
Mark vertical centerlines on both sides of each station that bisect the distance across the bottom and the distance across the gunwales at each trapezoid station location. These centerlines will be used to straighten the plug in a later step. The final step in the construction of the plug stations is to cover the chine corners of each trapezoid with masking tape. This tape will prevent the stations from adhering to the bottom of the boat in a later gluing step. Once the eight stations have been completed, it is time cut out and layout the two side panels from the 4'x16'x1/4" side stock.
Scarfing PlywoodHome Made Scarfing Jig
Make the side panels
Dimensions and layout locations are given in the plans. Study the plans, and then read the following layout instructions. Make sure the honeycomb-core you are working with is (almost) sixteen feet long. If you scarfed two 4x8 sheets together you will actually be close to 2" less then 16' long. That's OK. You make all layout marks relative to the pointed downstream end. The upstream end of the boat will be at the end of the honeycomb-core--where ever that is. Notice the way the two side panels are taken from the one (approx) 4'x16' sheet. A long diagonal cut is made from end to end that describes the gunwale edge of both panels. The chine edges of both side panels are described by the original factory edges of the honeycomb-core. Measure along the forty-eight inch axis of one end of the panel. Make a pencil mark at 26 inches from one corner. Go to the other end of the sheet and make a second pencil mark that is twenty-six inches from the opposite corner of the first mark. Snap a chalk line connecting these two marks, from one end of the sheet to the other. This is the cut line that describes the gunwale edges of both panels. Hook your tape measure on one end of the panel near a corner that corresponds to the bow end of a side panel. You will be measuring along a chine edge. Measure back toward the stern 10" and make a mark. Connect a straight line from this mark upwards at a slant to the top front corner of the side piece you are working on. This point corresponds to the tip of the stem. The slanted line connecting these two points describes the front end of the side panel.
Then make a mark at 48" from the same corner, also along the chine edge. Square this line up from the chine edge of the panel to the gunwale edge. Then run your tape all the way out to sixteen feet and leave it there. Make a mark every 24" inches from the 48" mark back toward the stern end. Measuring from the bow end of the panel along the chine edge you will have marks at 10", 48", 72", 96", 120", 144" etc. Square all the six inch intervals up to the gunwale edge of the panel. Layout lines at 48" 72" 96" 120" 144" are location lines for plug stations one through 5. These lines correspond to the vertical center of each station. Draw two parallel lines (3/8" to either side of the eight station centerlines) to mark the edges of the stations. Six-inch interval marks that do not correspond to plug stations are left in place as future reference markers. The last mark is at 182" from the bow, or 10" from the rear end of the panel. This last mark is connected with a slanted line up to top rear corner of the side panel to describe the transom cut. Repeat on the other side of the chalk line to mark and layout the other side panel. Use a sharp saw and a steady, patient hand to cut out the two side pieces.
At this point the two side panels have been laid out, and cut out. But notice that the layout lines on one panel correspond to the outside of sheet, and the layout lines on the other panel correspond to the inside of the sheet. This happened because of the way the two side panels were oriented on the original 4'x16' panel. Turn both panels over, and repeat the layout procedure on the two opposite sides. The layout lines will now appear on both the inside and the outside of both side panels.
Mark the screw holes
Measuring from the chine edge toward the gunwale edge of the side panel at each station location, drill two holes that correspond to the holes drilled in the corresponding plug stations.
Pre-fiberglass the inside and (on another day) the outside surfaces of the two side panels
Now that the side panels have been cut, laid out and drilled, it is time to fiberglass the inside face of each sheet.
Place four sixteen foot 2"x4" boards over a pair of saw horses, and then place both side panels on top of the 2"x4"'s with the inside faces up. Precut two pieces of ten ounce fiberglass cloth so they are about one inch bigger than each side panel on all sides. You can cut both side pieces from one 16'2" length of 50" wide fabric in much the same manner as you did the honeycomb-core sides. Roll the fabric up and set it aside. Refer to the fiberglassing review at the beginning of these instructions. Don't use too much resin.
Make the transom
Dimensions for the transom are given in the plans. Make the transom from one corner of the 3/8" honeycomb-core piece that will become the bottom of the boat in a later step. The transom has a bottom bevel and two identical side bevels that are given in the transom diagram. Draw vertical centerlines down through the middle of the transom on both sides before cutting out the transom. Fiberglass the inside surface of the transom and set it aside.
In about two or three hours, or whenever the resin on the side panels reaches a half-cured, rubbery state, use a sharp knife to trim off the excess fabric from the edges of the two side panels. Once the resin is tack free, but not necessarily fully cured, you can apply another coat of resin with a foam roller, and then flatten it out with a drywall trowel as necessary to fill the weave of the fabric and to achieve a smooth finish. Once this second coat of resin is tack free, but not necessarily hard and fully cured, you can immediately proceed to the next step and mount the sides on the plug, or you can quit for the day, and proceed again at a later date.
Mount the Plywood Sides on the Plug
It is possible to proceed alone at this point. In fact the entire boat can be built while working alone, but it is a lot easier if you have a helper for the next step. Stand up station #3 and fasten one of the two side panels to it with one screw through the corresponding holes that are nearest the chine corner of the station. Your helper will have to hold the station to keep it from falling over. Drive the screw in half way only. Let the front end of the honeycomb-core droop down to the floor. Repeat on the other side. Then stand up station #2. Pick up the front end of either side panel and fasten it to station #2 with one screw through the hole nearest the chine edge of the station. Drive this screw in half way. Repeat on the other side. Then drive in the bottom screws at stations #2 and #4, driving the screws only halfway. In other words, install trapezoids three, two, four and five and one, more or less in that order (working from the middle out). Drive these screws in all the way as you go. For each trapezoid station (think of it like a temporary boat rib) put one screw at the top edge, where the screw hole will end up covered by the gunwale in a later step. Put the other screw 2-3" from the chine, where the screw hole will get covered with heavy fiberglass before the boat is done.
Make the Stem
The simplest stem is an elongated triangle cut from fir, oak, mahogany or ash with a power circular saw. Take the stem angle off the table of angles with a bevel square, and transfer this angle right onto the power saw to cut out the stem. Make this stem only if you don't have a table saw. Stem alternate #2 is recommended for anyone with access to a table saw. This more complex stem has been notched on its sides to "let in" the .25" side panels.
Install the Stem
Wet-out both the stem and the mating honeycomb-core surfaces with unthickened resin. Thicken a second batch of resin with microfibers and apply it to the stem. Fasten the stem to one of the two side panels first, making no effort to pull the two side panels together as yet. Use 5/8" drywall screws placed about three inches apart to suck the honeycomb-core tight onto the stem. Once the stem has been secured firmly to one side panel, have your helper pull the two side panels together so you can fasten the other panel to the other side of the stem. Now that the stem has been installed, you can drive in the screws at the sides of station #1.
Install the Transom
Wet out the transom edges and the edges of the honeycomb-core sides where the transom will go. Apply thickened resin to the transom and then fasten with 1 1/4" drywall screws (or pneumatic air staples if you have them).
Now that stations 1-5, the sides, stem, and the transom are in place, it is time to straighten up the form. If you are working over a wood floor, move your boat aside and snap a 16' line through the middle of your work space. Then screw a straight, sixteen foot 2"x4" board to the side of the line. Screw straight scraps of 1"x4" or 1"x6" boards vertically along the centerlines of the plug stations that run from the floor of the shop up to the top of each plug station. Use screws or toenails to fasten these vertical "centerline legs" to the straight edge that is now mounted on the floor of the shop. Pulling the vertical center legs over to the straightedge quickly straightens up the whole form, sides and all. Screw a 1"x4" to one side of the centerline that runs down through the middle of the transom so it reaches down to the straightedge on the floor of the shop. Toenail or screw the 1"x4" to the straightedge. Screw a 1"x4" to the flat, inside surface of the stem so it reaches down to the straightedge on the floor of the shop. Screw or toenail this board to the straightedge. Add braces here and there as necessary to firm up the whole assembly. Once things are all centered up and braced firmly in place, you are ready to make the bottom panel.
If you are working over a concrete floor, you cannot fasten a 2"x4" to the floor of the shop, so you will have to straighten up the form without fastening it rigidly to the floor. To do this, you will need a 1/2" x 12" x 16' length of smooth exterior masonite siding material. Measuring from one corner of the masonite along a 12" end, make a pencil mark that is 1.75" from the corner. Then draw a slanted pencil line down and away from the 1.75" mark to a point approximately 12" from the end. Then cut off the corner of the masonite board, cutting along the slanted line. The end of the masonite board should now look as if it had been cut off to sharp point at that end, and then cut a second time to blunt the sharp end of the masonite (see the illustration below). Slide the masonite board underneath the boat so the "almost sharpened" end is nearest the stem of the boat. Climb under the boat, lift up the masonite board, and use drywall screws to fasten it to the top cord of each station. The sharp end of the masonite board should line up with the center of the stem, and the middle edge of the board should line up with the centerlines of each trapezoid station. The rear end of the masonite board should now be bending downwards slightly, and sticking out from underneath the transom. Screw the edge of the masonite board flush to the centerline on the transom, and then trim off the excess masonite at a point approximately 1/2" to the rear of the transom. The plug should now be quite straight, although it is still "free-floating," and not fastened in any way to the concrete floor. Use any remaining scraps of wood to add extra legs and diagonal braces here and there until the plug assembly is rigid and firm all around. Now you are ready to proceed with the next step making and installing the bottom.
Working with a sharp block plane or a wood rasp, plane off the high "outside" edges of the 1/4" honeycomb-core side panels so they are flush with the bottom of the plug stations. Use a five foot (or so) straight edge to check your work as you go. Do not plane anything lower than the inside edge of the honeycomb-core sides.
The four foot by (approx) sixteen foot bottom panel should have three square corners and one odd corner where you took out the transom in an earlier step. Snap a line down the middle of the bottom panel from end to end. Place the bottom panel over the plug, square corners and all, so the centerline down the middle of the panel lines up with the centerlines on the stations. Push down on the front end of the bottom panel until it touches the stem. Drive a screw through the panel into the stem to hold the panel temporarily in place. Have your helper walk around to the other end of the boat and push down on the rear end of the panel until it touches the transom. While he or she is doing this, drive a series of screws, two to each station, through the panel into the bottom cord of each station. Start at the bow and work back toward your helper at the stern. Look underneath the boat periodically to make sure the centerlines on the stations are lining up with the centerline on the panel. Finish up with two screws driven through the panel into the bottom edge of the transom. Reach under the edges of the bottom panel with a pencil and draw a line around the outside of the boat to describe the final shape of the bottom. Back out all the screws and take the panel off the form. Turn it over for cutting. Set a sharp power circular saw or a jig saw at twenty seven degrees and cut tight to the line. If you use a power circular saw, set the depth of the cut just deep enough to cut through the honeycomb-core.
Pre-fiberglass the "inside surface" of the bottom panel
Place the panel flat on a pair of saw horses with the inside surface facing up. Fiberglass this face as you did the side panels. Trim off the excess fabric when the resin is at a half-cured, rubbery stage. You can turn the bottom panel over and fasten it permanently in place as soon as the resin is tack free, or you can take the rest of the day off and resume work again when the resin is totally cured.
Install the Bottom
Wet out the mating surfaces with unthickened resin. Trowel a heavy bead of thickened resin onto the .25" chine edge of the honeycomb-core sides. Use microfibers for the thickening. You'll need a helper when lowering the bottom panel down onto the plug in order to avoid a glue mess. (The chine corners of your plug stations should have been covered with masking tape in an earlier step) Drive the first screw back into the stem, and work back toward the transom as you did before. The bottom panel should now be held in proper alignment, but the outside edges will not be held down tight enough for a good glue bond to the edges of the side panel. Walk around the perimeter of the boat, drilling adjacent pairs of 1/8 holes through both the bottom of the boat and the side, an inch or so back from the chine. Then use 8 lengths of bailing wire to sew the joint together tightly. If you have an air stapler of almost any kind, you can staple the bottom of the boat down into and onto the 1/4" side edges. Don't worry if a large number of these staples miss their mark and/or split out through the sides of the honeycomb-core near the chine. It doesn't matter. When the glue has dried, pull out any bailing wire or staples, and then round off the chine with a wood rasp or a grinder. Any stuck wires can be removed by heating them up first, with a torch or a soldering iron. Round off the chine as much as you dare without grinding right through the joint. If the joint between the bottom and the side panel fractures while you are rounding off the chine, ignore the crack for the time being, and finish rounding off the chine. Then work some fresh resin into the fractured area of the chine, and nail or clamp the chine-joint one more time. Once the grinding and rounding of the chine is complete, back out all of the screws in the bottom panel of the boat. Drive a new set of screws through the side panel into the side of each plug station at the gunwale edge of the boat. You now have three screws in the side cord of each station, but not for long, as you should now back out all side-cord screws except the ones you just placed near gunwale edge of the boat. Before proceeding to the next fiberglassing step, carefully rub some soap or candle wax into the phillips head notches of the sixteen screws that remain along the gunwale edge of the boat. You will be covering these screws with fiberglass in the next step, but you will eventually need to dig these screws out. Working with a sharp block plane or a wood rasp, plane off the high "outside" edges of the 1/4" honeycomb-core side panels so they are flush with the bottom of the plug stations. Use a five foot (or so) straight edge to check your work as you go. Do not plane anything lower than the inside edge of the honeycomb-core sides. Use a block plane and sandpaper, or a wood rasp and sandpaper to round off the chine edge of the boat. Round off the chine as much as you dare without grinding right through the joint. If the joint between the bottom and the side panel fractures while you are rounding off the chine, ignore the crack for the time being, and finish rounding off the chine. Then work some fresh resin into the fractured area of the chine and nail or clamp the chine-joint one more time. Once the grinding and rounding of the chine is complete, back out all of the screws in the bottom panel of the boat. Drive a new set of screws through the side panel into the side of each plug station at the gunwale edge of the boat. You now have three screws in the side cord of each station, but not for long, as you should now back out all side-cord screws except the ones you just placed near the gunwale edge of the side panel. Before proceeding to the next fiberglassing step, carefully rub some soap or candle wax into the phillips head notches of the sixteen screws that remain along the gunwale edge of the boat. You will be covering these screws with fiberglass in the next step, but you will eventually need to dig these screws out.
The sides of the boat will be fiberglassed first, and then the bottom. The outside lay-up can be broken into a series of steps over a period of several days, but you will achieve the best results if you complete the lay-up all at once. Sweep off the floor of your shop to make a clean cutting area and roll out a 16' 6" length of 50" wide fiberglass cloth. Cut out two pieces of fabric similar to the ones you glassed the inside of the side panels with in an earlier step.
Wet out one side of the boat with a foam roller. Pick up a piece of side fabric with you at one end and your helper at the other end, and lay the fabric onto the wet side of the boat. Place the fabric onto the boat with the ragged, scissor-edge lapping over the gunwale. Place the clean factory edge of the fabric up so it laps one inch over the chine. Pull on the ends and the edges of the fabric to put tension on the weave of the fabric. Use a drywall trowel or a rubber squeegee to work out any remaining wrinkles. Stroke the trowel from the middle of the fabric out toward the edges. Cut the front edge of the fabric down through the middle of the stem. Wrap the rear end of the fabric over the side edge of the transom. Trim back the rear end of the fabric so it laps the transom by an inch or so. Repeat on the other side of the boat. Wait until both side pieces are in place before applying more resin to the fabric. Try to leave the fabric with its rough, pebbly texture unobscured by slick puddles of resin. On the other hand, cloudy- white areas that haven't become fully transparent don't yet have enough resin.
Once the sides have been glassed, you are ready to stop for the day, or immediately go on to glassing the bottom of the boat. I recommend going ahead with it. Wet out the honeycomb-core bottom panel with a foam roller. Roll out a 14' 6" piece of 50" wide fabric and cut it off. Carefully lower the fabric onto the bottom while pulling tight on the ends of the fabric. Pull on the edges of the fabric, and stroke out any wrinkles with a rubber squeegee or a 6" drywall trowel. Trim the edges of the fabric to follow the chine of the boat. This first layer of bottom fabric should lap over the chine edge by about one inch. Once the first layer of bottom fabric has been lowered into place and trimmed to size, then finish wetting out the fabric. Once again, use just enough resin to make the fabric transparent.
You have to let the resin in the first layer of fabric kick for a while before you can install the second layer of fabric. The edges of the fabric (where they lap over the chine) rarely stick down at first. Resist the temptation to brush on more resin. Ignore these edges until the resin has become thick and sticky. Once the resin is thick enough, the edges can be pressed down and they will stay down. While you are waiting for the resin in the first bottom layer to get thick and tacky, it is a good time to fiberglass the transom. Cut a piece of ten ounce transom fabric that is approximately an inch large all around. Wet out the transom and then put the fabric in place. Trowel out any wrinkles, and then continue wetting out the fabric until it becomes transparent. Then cut the fabric flush with the edges of the transom. The side fabric already overlaps the transom, so there is no need to lap this corner once again with the transom fabric. Once the resin on the bottom of the boat has become thick and tacky to the touch, like raspberry jelly left out in the sun on a picnic table, it is time to install the second layer of bottom fabric. Spread a fresh wet-out coat of resin with a foam roller. Roll out a second 14' 6" length of 50" wide fabric, and lay it down on top of the first layer. Pull on the edges of the fabric to work out any wrinkles. Trim back the side edges of this layer so they lap the chine approximately two inches. Then add more resin until all cloudy-white areas have disappeared. Take a break now and give the resin in this second layer time to kick. This second layer will kick a lot faster than the first layer because of heat generated by the chemical reactions taking place in the first layer. Once the second bottom layer has become thick and tacky, you are ready to apply two layers of fiberglass tape over the chines.
Wet out the chine were the first layer of 6" tape will go. Then cut a ten foot length of six inch fiberglass tape and lower it down onto the boat so it straddles the center of the chine, starting from a point twelve inches back from the stem. This will place the rear end of the tape approximately 36" from the transom. Pull tightly on each end of the tape to tension the weave and to pull out any wrinkles. Place your hands over the midsection of the tape (you're still wearing rubber gloves) and stroke your hands out toward the ends to squeegee out any air bubbles in the tape. Repeat on the other side. Finish wetting out both tape pieces. As always, use as little resin as is necessary to get the job done. Use six inch tape to cover the stem and both transom edges. Take another break. Once this resin has become tacky, you are ready to tape the chine from end to end with a second and final layer of fiberglass tape. Clean up your tools with solvent and take a bath.
Once the resin in this outside lay-up has completely cured, you should put on a good dust mask and sand off any bumpy resin drips, and smooth off the lumpy edges of the chine tape. Fifty grit silicon carbide floor surfacing paper in an orbital sander will grind off a lot of resin in a hurry. A fifty grit disk in a right angle grinder is even faster, but be careful and use a light touch. Change grits periodically and finish off with 180 grit paper. You may need to do some intermediate resin patching during this smoothing process. If so, use a mixture of resin and #407 micro balloons. It may take two or three additional coats of resin (with intermediate sanding) to really slick up the bottom of the boat. The smoother the bottom of the boat is, the better it will eventually row. Once you have faired or smoothed the hull to your satisfaction, mix up a fresh batch of resin and thicken it with #423 graphite powder. Mix in the powder at about twenty percent by volume. Roll this mixture on with a foam roller, Use a bristle brush to work out any lines left by the edges of the roller. Carry this thickened mix up the side of the boat to the edges of the six inch chine tape. RE> Temporary rib formers, layout marks and screw holes:
Each layout mark on the side panels corresponds to a temporary attachment point between side panel and rib former. You can make this temporary attachment with drywall screws from the outside--through the side panel and into the temporary rib former. If you are planning a bright finish, at each station, place one screw about 2" from the chine and another about 1" down from the gunwale edge. That way the screw holes end up roboresources. If you are plannign a paint finish (what I always do) it doesn't matter where you put the holes. If you have air nailing equipment you can drive an air finish nail through a temporary scrap of honeycomb-core, through the side panel and into the rib former. Then it's easy to remove the nails later on. And that way it doesn't matter where you put the nails. Those holes will disappear under fiberglass.